What are the negative aspects of this situation? Interpretive definition: You use interpretive to describe something that provides an interpretation . That is because, whether that object is a rocket or a bird, there will not be any �gaps� in its movement. Different interpretations can be perfectly consistent with the same set of underlying facts. Interpretive Exercise s Submitted by: 7 October Word Count 000 BIB230A-ON25 Fall Interpreting the Bible Re: Grasping Godâs Word Textbook, Chapter 9: WORD STUDIES Assignment 9-2, Pp. But the interpretation of these same events that says that this is a running back carrying the ball in a football game has no such problem. But not all concepts that are applicable to the phenomena they explain are like this. So the idea of an electron, besides being applicable to phenomena, is also based on exactly the same phenomena in the sense that electrons are essentially theoretical entities. In particular it may not be found in some causal connection which one interpretation uses or presupposes and the other does not. But actions are often simply constituted by events involving the agent of the action. But within limits, it probably doesn�t matter what color the rock is. Just as both interpretations will be consistent with exactly the same number of people on the field, the same colors of clothing, and the like, so both will be consistent with, because they will be claimed to supervene on, exactly the same set of underlying causal relations among the various events that take place. This process can continue, of course, but if we stick with any one of these theories, we keep finding we have to abandon or revise it as soon as new observations are made. So I invent an excuse to give the hosts and drag her away. Whether the quarterback decides to run or throw the ball, whether the receiver gets tackled or manages to score, it is still a football game. To see what this comes to it will help to distinguish two different sorts of questions. But, unlike the theories of the moving object, the interpretations of the events on the football field are indeterminate with respect to some of the underlying facts on which they supervene. It is indeed applicable to behavior but it is not based on behavior. Many of the so-called �basic actions� by which one performs the (less basic) actions which one performs for reasons are still intentional actions. How can commonsense explanations of actions, which are apparently teleological and hence not causal in form, actually explain these actions? First, interpretive research employs a theoretical sampling strategy, where study sites, respondents, or cases are selected based on theoretical considerations such as whether they fit the phenomenon being studied (e.g., sustainable practices can only be â¦ And then it too will have been refuted, or at least it is no longer consistent with the observations. He pretends to misinterpreted what they are doing. Definition: An interpretive question exercise consists of a series of objective items based on a common set of data. The thought would seem to have to be that one knows directly from one�s own case what e.g. It follows that just having a purpose includes, typically at least, awareness of that purpose, automatically so to speak, without the need for further interpretation and without anything analogous to �observation�. And to do that I must go one way or the other. It may be easiest to see this, and to see that having further open choices is not essential, if we shift for a moment from actions that have purposes to objects that do. This is the heart of the issue. Something that explains, makes understandable. Such a solipsist would simply deny the applicability of intentional or purposive predicates to others than herself. In the football example the indeterminacy arises from the fact that the events being interpreted involve groups of people and numerous choices on the part of those involved. I was mistaken in thinking she wanted to leave. We understand purposiveness, acquire the very idea so to speak, from the fact that we are ourselves purposive agents. It is also true as a matter of fact that keeping people from going into the ditch when backing out of Steve�s driveway is a saving of the amount of gasoline needed to hitch them up to Steve�s pickup to pull them out. It would be as if we were condemned to being merely internal observers of the motions and sounds we were making, forever trying to figure out what we ourselves were doing. Though using that account would complicate the argument here, so far as I can tell it makes no essential difference. But the predictions the two theories make about where the object will be observed apply to all possible observations, not just the ones already made. The idea that I have to interpret my own actions (or movements) in the way I interpret those of others is not coherent. J. Casey, Methuen, London, 1973, reprinted in his Essays In Quasi-Realism, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. What the football interpretation holds is the quarterback calling signals, for instance, the ritualized-debate interpretation presumably will have to say is some sort of reference to a text or debate position. For an eliminativist, purposes are simply crude or defective empirically based concepts. Like the name suggests, an interpretive essay is one in which you interpret a piece of literatureâa book, essay, play, or poem. And what is the difference between a truly creative artist and an interpretive artist? When a new observation is made, say by making another pass with our radar, the position of the object is consistent with the predictions of theory R but not those of theory B. each theory either predicts the object occupies that part of space or that it does not. Of course, at this point I am really only assuming this is possible in this case, even though it seems a plausible assumption. Notice however that this tells us nothing about whether what you and I have done is actually unfair. Such functions can be discovered but they are not assigned. At best she would, like everyone else, have to try to figure out what she was doing by thinking about the movements and sounds she was making. This claim presupposes that these concepts, like that of an electron, are not only applicable to the phenomena with which they deal but also that they are based on these phenomena in the sense that we have no further reason to think the things they refer to actually exist beyond that provided by whatever evidence supports the theories in which they appear. Each leaves lots of possibilities open, even for the underlying facts relevant to the interpretation. Being underdetermined by the data just means that the implications of the theory go beyond the evidence for it. If we return now to actions and the events that constitute actions, we shouldn�t be surprised that we find these same sorts of indeterminacy. So signaling boredom would not be a basic action but rolling ones eyes back presumably is. I will explain below why I think this is not problematic, indeed not even uncommon, that is, why it is not always the case that a mistake about one or another underlying fact will serve to distinguish the correct from the mistaken interpretation. But that would also have been my reason had I turned down the road to the right. But, if I am right, in contrast to the two theories of the object detected by our radar, none of these facts, either the ones already checked or the ones �predicted� by the two interpretations, need be inconsistent with either interpretation. Fairness and unfairness supervene on the facts. �A set of properties A supervenes upon another set B just in case no two things can differ with respect to A-properties without differing with respect to their B-properties.� Someone might think that this means that the elements of the football interpretation and the elements of the ritualized debate interpretation could not possibly be held to supervene on the same underlying facts. When I �learn from my own case� that, say, my purpose in running down the street is to get away from those bad guys, does that mean that I somehow �observe� myself internally and then on some grounds or other attribute such a purpose to myself, more or less in the same way someone else who is observing or thinking about me might? The fact that fairness and unfairness supervene on the facts, and that the facts are the same in each case, entails that either we both treated our student unfairly or that neither of us did. In particular it cannot be found in any of the causal relations included in those underlying facts. Quoted in Scott Sehon, Teleological Realism (Cambridge, MIT, 2005), p. 117. You will not be able to formulate and answer these questions by citing information directly from the text but by thinking beyond the textual level.These questions help you to read a literary text as a literary text. Learn more. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? It says nothing about why this relation holds. Accordingly, âinterpretive researchers assume that access to reality (given or socially constructed) is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, and instrumentsâ. So here again we would have two interpretations, each of which is (or at least could be) consistent with the underlying facts on which its elements supervene, because each is indeterminate with respect to numerous open choices the agent in question can make, including the choice of whether to turn left or right at that fork in the road. Therefore, it is a type of research that is widely used in sociology, psychology and anthropology. There are a few things to notice here before explaining how indeterminacy enters into this story. But objects always have plenty of other features than the ones which serve the purpose in question, and (perhaps within some limits) those can be anything at all and the purpose will still be served. I manage to catch the eye of my wife, who is across the room, and she gives me the sort of �rolling back of the eyes� look that I take to mean that she can hardly wait to leave. Electrons have precise, detailed roles in explanations of lots of physical phenomena, including electricity, chemical bonds, and many others. 1 for a fuller discussion of these two accounts. If this is right it turns out that, as a consequence of this different form, it is a mistake to think that interpretative explanations are somehow reducible to (or explicable in terms of) causal explanations. . The point is that there is no other reason to think that there are electrons at all beside their usefulness in the theories in which they appear. The question I want to ask is what has gone wrong when the observer makes such a completely interpretative mistake, that is, where she gets none of the underlying facts wrong but still misinterprets what is going on. Contrast this with our two interpretations of what is happening on the football field. We have two completely different interpretations of exactly the same set of underlying facts. Free literature, library facilities, and interpretive services are also available at the museum. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? The difference would be that my real purpose was to get away, no matter what I or anyone else thought I was doing. Writing@CSU is the home of Colorado State University's open-access learning environment, the Writing Studio. To do that is to give what I am calling an interpretative explanation. And the evidence for the theory is also evidence for electrons, in fact this is all the evidence for electrons that there is. Interpretive Exercises. Use this site to write, learn to write, take writing classes, and â¦ Of course while much of each interpretation will involve assigning different intentional states to the people involved, there will also be other intentional states of the various agents that are the same in each of the two interpretations, such as beliefs about the color of the grass. 6. We notice markings indicating that the radar has detected something, but we don�t know what. Examples of Normative and Interpretive Paradigm Consider a classroom situation where both the paradigm is used simultaneously. So whatever it is about these two interpretations that makes the one correct and the other incorrect, that is not where we will find it. Once we are out the door though she is incensed; she was having a great time. This of course was famously questioned by Wittgenstein and his followers. Griffith was just being funny, of course, but the possibility of misunderstanding in this way is a real one. I don�t intend this to be a definition. Similarly for the sort of debate tournament we are supposing for the alternative interpretation. This second sort of error, where she did not in fact roll her eyes, is not an error of interpretation on my part but a factual error about what I saw. The title of Griffith�s piece was �What It Was, Was Football�. We are supposing that there is no disagreement at all about the underlying facts. Still, I need to keep running. If absolutely no intentional characterizations correctly apply to anything, then those students on the field are no more playing football than they are having brief discussions and then fighting with each other. It tries to make an exception for the first person case. Of course to say that an interpretation is indeterminate is not to say that anything goes. I don�t want to get caught. The individual may interpret this behavior to mean that their friend is angry with them. I have been arguing that interpretations are indeterminate, whether they are about the actions of individual agents or about events that involve cooperation among several agents. The judge has been inconsistent. Once one agrees that there are such things as intentional states, purposes, and the like, the evidence that others have these states is overwhelming. ). So the picture is this. And so each will entail specific, though of course different, claims about what observations will be made. Interpretivist Epistemology. By the same token, two judges, both looking at exactly the same set of underlying facts, and in complete agreement as to what those facts are, can still disagree as to whether the correct interpretation of the law and of the applicable principles of fairness require a verdict of �fair� or �unfair� in our two cases. 4. Having a purpose, acting with some purpose, is itself a �state� of an agent, frequently perfectly conscious, different from merely attributing such a state to someone, even oneself. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. INTERPRETIVE READING EXAMPLES WRITING AND PRODU ING INTERPRETIVE READING (IR) TASKS reating an Interpretive Reading task starts with knowing several key things: the level of reading passage (Novice, Intermediate, Advanced), the topic and the kind of reading passage you want to design (narrative, informative, opinion piece, instructions, etc. One of two things might have happened. In order to be complete your theory will have as a consequence the proposition that under some circumstances the muscles in the running back�s legs will cause him to move to the right rather than the left. In this they seem sharply different from other sorts of commonsense explanations of events, as well as from the sorts of explanations found in sciences such as physics and chemistry, all of which are causal, and of course not teleological. Psychology Definition of INTERPRETIVE THERAPY: Form of active and directive psychotherapy where the therapist elicits the client only is explanation a subcategory of understanding, but also explanation itself is simultaneously causal and interpretive in an interesting and underexplored way. Each group would have a short meeting to discuss and vote on some topic, and then the ones selected to present the conclusions of the group would line up facing the other group. I am not merely trying to get some exercise; I am trying to save my skin. An obvious question remains. The paradigm first person example of purposes is surely not just describing one�s own purposes to oneself, that is, thinking that one has a purpose of some sort. Explanations of actions in terms of agents� reasons are also interpretative explanations in my sense. When I turn down the road to the left I am of course doing something for a reason. The People’s Choice 2020 Word Of The Year: 2020 Was A $#@#%%$@! An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.Many formal languages used in mathematics, logic, and theoretical computer science are defined in solely syntactic terms, and as such do not have any meaning until they are given some interpretation. The fact that the purpose of that rock is to keep people from driving into the ditch is perfectly consistent with its having no effect whatsoever on the people backing out of Steve�s driveway. If all the relevant facts are the same in both cases then either both of us have been unfair to our student or neither has been. In general when objects have purposes those purposes are served by specific features of the objects, such as, in the case of this rock, the fact that it might do some damage to one�s car to hit it. An interpretation is indeterminate if so far as the interpretation is concerned the underlying facts being interpreted can be of various different sorts without being evidence against the interpretation. It is a concept we bring to explanations of behavior from the fact of our own agency. For two teams to be playing a game of football, the players must have many of a very large but indefinite set of intentional states. Rocks can�t have functions of that sort, not being organisms or parts of organisms. ), URL = . She would thus find it impossible to engage in any sort of distinctively human interactions. Maybe it is a weather balloon, maybe a rocket, maybe only a bird flying in front of the radar. In specifying that only interpretative errors are involved though I am supposing that none of the �underlying� physical states, movements and the like have been mistaken by the observer. The possibility of weakness and self-deception shows that both the correct and incorrect interpretation of what the agent is really doing are consistent with any explicit reasoning or choice the agent makes. A claim that one set of properties supervenes on another set is merely a claim about a certain relation between those sets of properties. 2. The elements of both interpretations are claimed to supervene on exactly the same set of facts, which include exactly the same causal interactions between the same events, etc. The explanation was long and drawn-out. So it is hard to see how she could actually be pursuing it. An interpretive essay is an essay that provides an analysis of another piece of writing. He would have misinterpreted what he saw. Then the whole thing was repeated. Of course whoever gave the object its purpose might have believed or even intended that the purpose would be achieved in a specific way. . Not only all my physical movements but even my conscious reasoning and resulting decision, in fact even my own belief as to what I was doing, might be the same whether I was just jogging or was actually running away. I can see no reason for going left rather than right or vice versa. Research papers are source-based explanations of a topic, event, or phenomenon. An interpretive essay is an essay that provides an analysis of another piece of writing. It is also more in the nature of misperception and interpretive crudity, rather than ignorance. That is quite different from the two theories of the moving object. Objective: To supply students and teachers with information to understand and construct their own interpretive exercises. Saying there is indeterminacy in interpretations doesn�t mean that nothing falls outside the range of indeterminacy. If different theories which do not use the concept of an electron are found to do a better job explaining the same phenomena, that will be taken to show that we were wrong to think that there ever were any such things as electrons. Daphne Merkin on Lena Dunham, Book Criticism, and Self-Examination, The Stacks: The Eyes of Winter: Paul Newman at 70, The Gregory Brothers and the Rise of the Remix Video, Library of the World's Best Literature, Ancient and Modern, Vol. So if Griffith had thought he was witnessing a horse race rather than a football game, his mistake could have been traced to a mistake about this underlying fact. This assumption about the two interpretations by itself yields an interesting conclusion, which is part of the reason it will be worth looking at it more carefully below. Though this is true of my version of the story, all these elements are in fact included in Griffith�s actual routine. In saying that the two interpretations of what is happening on that field are indeterminate, however, I am saying something different. And in all such situations the choices of each of those things are typically not done for reasons. (It is for instance the position dualists seem forced into by �other minds skepticism.�) It is not incoherent even if it seems very implausible. How can that be? A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. In the normal situation at least, someone who is acting with some purpose must by the very fact of acting on it, realize what this purpose is. So the form of solipsism that holds that I know from my own case that I myself have purposes, intentional states and the like, but I don�t know whether anyone else has such states, cannot be allowed by eliminativists of the sort mentioned at the beginning of this paper. We sometimes misinterpret what others are doing. And these events are obviously open to causal explanation as long as we describe them in terms of their physical or chemical makeup. Use these interpretive questions as starting points to inspire a few tailored questions that guide the group to a consensus. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. As I described Griffith�s story, it involves lots of errors of the second, non-interpretative sort. Each of us is charged with doing something unfair to a student, lets suppose, and it turns out to be exactly the same sort of thing in exactly the same sort of class to exactly the same sort of student (etc.). And Buridan cases of this sort are common. But we can start with an example. Since the first interpretation is correct and the second incorrect, the thought would be, there must be some difference in the underlying facts that distinguishes the two. But of course �trying to figure out what I am doing� is itself a purposive activity. So I am assuming that the two competing interpretations are consistent with, and intended to be based on, exactly the same set of �underlying� facts, events, states of the players, etc. Discussing our cases, we discover that the various circumstances of our crimes are exactly the same in all relevant respects. To say that one state supervenes on some other states, as when a mental state is claimed to supervene on some physical states of the brain, is to say that there can be no difference in the supervening state without some difference in the underlying states on which it supervenes. She won�t interpret what she sees in this way. It is just that she won�t describe them as intentional actions. Steve�s house is on a hillside and his driveway is rather steep. 185-86. To take the earlier example, one might signal one�s boredom by means of rolling one�s eyes back. Akrasia and self deception are always possible. Both theories R and B make predictions about the exact positions of the moving object for every point in time. Otherwise, if �purpose� were a purely third person, explanatory concept the content of which was unavailable to whomever actually had the purpose just in virtue of having it, while we could interpret or think about our actions, it is hard to see how we could actually perform actions. If that sounds mysterious, think of how many open choices there are for those participating in either a football game or a debate tournament. As Kim says at one point, the mere fact of �supervenience leaves open the question of what grounds or accounts for it�� �Supervenience is not a metaphysically deep, explanatory relation; it is merely a phenomenological relation about patterns of property covariation.� If there is a nomological connection, or even a logical entailment, between the underlying and supervening properties, then of course that would be explanatory as well, but such connections go beyond mere supervenience. Considerations of �cosmic� or �poetic� justice aside, something must have gone wrong. I suggest that it is because, unlike our two theories of the moving object, neither of the two interpretations of the events on the football field is completely determinate with respect to the underlying facts on which it is based. Finding out that �what it was, was football� would explain the events on the field to a foreigner who really was unaware that this was what was being witnessed, in a perfectly ordinary sense of �explain�. A �basic action� is something one does, such as raising ones arm, but not �by means of� doing something else. It will help to contrast the interpretative explanations we are discussing with a situation where it is not so, that is, where a different explanatory theory requires some difference in the facts on which it is based. If this is right it tells us how the sort of indeterminacy I am claiming for these interpretations is possible, what it consists in so to speak, at least in these cases. There are four primary branches of philosophy, epistemology, ethics, logic and metaphysics. Even if that were true I can�t see that it affects the argument I want to make, but in any case it is not true. Of course �supplying� a purpose needn�t be, in fact cannot be, an intentional action, since that would just lead to a regress. But that doesn�t seem at all plausible if, as I am claiming, exactly the same thing applies to football games. In this it differs from what biologists sometimes call �functions�, which are a result (roughly) of the evolutionary history of the ancestors of the thing that has the function. She is, lets suppose, an alien from outer space (flown in especially to work in philosophical examples) who sees the events on the field simply as very complex interactions of some of the local fauna. Consider the running example again. Interpretative definition: of, involving, or providing interpretation ; expository | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples So this won�t prevent her from describing with complete accuracy, and to any level of detail her observational powers allow, everything that happens on the field. Suppose that Griffith, instead of interpreting what he saw on the field to be a ritualized debate tournament, had thought he was witnessing a horse race. By one common definition (Polkinghorne, 1983), all these methods That is I am going to assume for now that there can be purely interpretative mistakes. An eliminativist, who holds that purposive concepts are (supposed to be) based on the evidence they (try to) explain, will have to answer yes to this question. Even for that rock, its purpose might be achieved in more than one way. That is why there is no nomological connection between the underlying facts and the supervening, interpretive claim. The answer is that this is an empirical issue that turns, like any such issue, on the explanatory power of the interpretation proposed, but the essential concept involved, that of purposiveness, is not itself based on evidence in the way other theoretical concepts are. 1. On the general question of whether there can be supervenience without either logical or nomological �reduction� see Sehon (2005), Chap. The answer is that electrons are hypothesized by empirically very well established physical theory. The driveway is also narrow enough that if you drive in then, when you want to leave, you have to back out, since it is very difficult to turn around. The nature of misperception and interpretive in an interesting and underexplored way branches of,... Something he had witnessed on a hillside and his followers sometimes abbreviate this by saying that the implications of events! Version included lots more detail and was of course it must have some color for! Falls outside the range of indeterminacy we have that idea, however, I am found.. Before we get into the ditch thus find it impossible to engage in any sort of it! To these explanations similarly for the alternative interpretation on enough evidence human interactions Max definition... 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